La Vegetation du Sahara du Tchad a la Mautanie. Uses. Livest. East African Wildlife Journal, 2: 86-121. The arboreal flora of Israel and Transjordan and its ecological and phytogeographical significance. The obtained data suggest the beneficial role of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit as a hypoglycemic, hypolipidimic agent and as a protective a gent of liver from damage or injury. It is a source of steroidal sapogenins (diosgenin) often used for the synthesis of corticosteroids, sex hormones and oral contraceptives (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Chothani and Vaghasiya, 2011; Tesfaye, 2015).Social Benefit. A. ; Nanglem, N. S. ; Sanou, S., 2005. Tetrahedron, 38(4):513-519. This species grows to form a small, spiny tree (Chopra et al. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Seeds boiled in continuous changes of water to dibitter and then eaten with sorghum. Ciccarone A, 1951. Notes on trees and shrubs in arid and semi-arid regions. It is good forage especially when the tree is sprouting new leaves and new fruits (Kaboré-Zoungrana et al., 2008). Eschborn, Germany: GTZ. Stuttgart, Germany: Fischer. A preliminary report on trial plantings of woody species in arid and semi-arid northern Kenya. Momoh ZO, Akanbi MO, 1977. Wageningen, Netherland: Plant Research International, 82 pp. Akanbi MO, 1973. Petals 7.2–9.5 × 2–2.4 (2.8) mm., narrowly elliptic or elliptic-oblong, rarely lanceolate-oblong, glabrous on both surfaces. Balanites aegyptiaca (Linn.) It prefers moist or wet soil. Balanites aegyptiaca Del. Data from International Network of Feed Information Centres. Insecticidal properties of some plants growing in Puerto Rico. Saponin rich fraction of Balanites fruits (SRF) was administered orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg to schistosoma infected mice. The aim of this investigation is to examine the anticancer activities of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit extract with its biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against colon and liver cancer cells. Adam JG, 1968. It spreads from the margin of the desert to the woody savannahs with up to 900 mm of annual rainfall (FAO, 2009). Kernels are used as supplementary food, to extract oil and as famine food. Wickens GE, 1976. 49: 1-16. Stamens with the anthers 1.7–2.2 mm. J. Anim. The toxicity is due to a saponin that becomes rapidly inert so that fish killed such this way are edible. Bark stripping by sambar Cervus unicolor Kerr., in Gir forest, Gujarat. 1983, vii + 92 pp. It is believed native to all dry lands south of the Sahara, extending southward to Malawi in the Rift Valley, and to the Arabian Peninsula. Balanites aegyptiaca. B. aegyptiaca is one of the most important wild plant species of the arid and semiarid areas of Africa because it provides food, medicinal products and fuelwood valued for subsistence living (PROTA, 2016). Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Flore du Senegal.] Howes FN, 1946. Cape Town, South Africa: Balkema AA. 5 (9), 55-62. http://www.phcogrev.com/article.asp?issn=0973-7847;year=2011;volume=5;issue=9;spage=55;epage=62;aulast=Chothani, Govaerts C, 2016. Dakar, Senegal: Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA). Tree leaves in the diet of free-ranging ruminants in three areas of Burkina Faso. Hall JB, Walker HD, 1991. Trees of southern Africa. (PDF) ASSESSMENT OF SAPONIN RICH FRACTION FROM BALANITES AEGYPTIACA (L.) FRUITS AS ANTI SCHISTOMIASIS, ANTI-OXIDANT, ANTIMUTAGENIC AGENTS AND IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF SAPONINS FOR DRUG MANUFACTURE | European Scientific Journal ESJ - Academia.edu Nairobi, Kenya: International Council for Research in Agroforestry/University of Nairobi, 511-577. Conspectus Florae Angolensis. Contributions towards a knowledge of the Thysanoptera of Egypt. The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts. Browse in Africa: the Current State of Knowledge. pl. Anim. Mater. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of fruits of 30 B. aegyptiaca trees naturally growing in the hyper-arid and arid zones in Mauritania were evaluated by following standard procedures. The fruit kernel is rich in … Light rainfall and plant survival in E. African. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. Balanites aegyptiaca is a species of tree , classified as a member of the Zygophyllaceae or Balanitaceae. Journal of Ecology, 17:351-355. Etudes biologiques et chimiques sur les végétaux alimentaires de l'Afrique tropicale occidentale dans leurs relations avec le milieu géographique et humain. Blair Rains, A., 1963. Farm and Forest, 6:22-26. Dry grassland vegetation. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Addis Ababa University, 422-436. Book Handbook of Nuts. The fruits are used in the treatment of liver and spleen diseases. However, pure stands can occur as Balanites trees are often left when other trees are felled due to their value (Suliman and Jackson, 1960; Booth and Wickens, 1988).Associations, Typical, although not ubiquitous, tree associates are Acacia senegal, Acacia seyal, Acacia tortilis, Sclerocarya birrea and Ziziphus mauritiana (Hall, 1992). It borders seasonally inundated plains and grows well in valleys and on riverbanks in depressions, and on the slopes of rocky hills (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Janick and Paull, 2008; FAO, 2016). Small Rumin. Woody plants of Ghana with special reference to their uses. Stiftung Waldernhaltung in Africa/Bundesforschungsanstalt fur forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg. Ripe fruits are picked for their bitter-sweet flesh. Arap Sang FK, Hoekstra DA, Mwendandu R, 1985. Browse in Africa: the Current State of Knowledge. BOSTID Report No. An alternative method of analysis and its application to the Gombe sandstone vegetation. Flora of the Sahara. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 71(1):52-56. Dryland Agroforestry Research Project Research Report, 2. The role of browse in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones. 1. Rev. Useful trees and shrubs in Eritrea - Identification, propagation and management for agricultural and pastoral communities. It is very tolerant to drought and thrives with an annual rainfall of 200 mm, or less where there is an additional water supply (e.g. Faculté universitaire des Sciences agronomiques, Unité de Zootechnie et Centre wallon de Recherches agronomiques, Hansen, H. H. ; Sanou, L. ; Nacoulma, B. M. I., 2008. Part 2. The fruits of Balanites aegyptiacawere harvested in Burkina Faso in April 2010 and were used as plant material for the production of both bioethanol and biodiesel. B. aegyptiaca also has fine-grained dense and heavy heartwood that is easily worked and takes a good polish. Plant molluscicides. Balanites (Balanite aegyptiaca) Del., Multipurpose Tree a Prospective Review., International Journal of Modern Chemistry and Applied Science,, 2:189-194. 1986, Revised Edition. Early studies (El-Khidir et al., 1983; Lars and Joker, 2000; Lockett et al., 2002) showed that Balanites offers the most rapid and lowest means of providing B. aegyptiaca was first scientifically described by Prosper Alphinus in 1952, who named the genus Agihalid. Seeds are dispersed by birds and animals. 3. Forest tree planting in arid zones. Ramsay DM, 1958. 1960). Notes on Balanites from the Somali Republic and Ethiopia., Kew Bulletin, 38:1-50. Misc. Bulletin, 49 Washington, USA: USDA.  There are many common names for this plant. I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby publish it under the following license: This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license. PubMed:Laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal and cercariacidal activities of Balanites aegyptiaca. PubMed:Desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca) as an arid lands sustainable bioresource for biodiesel. Food and Fruit Trees of the Gambia. Acta Phytogeographica, 54:49-51. Uses. Date: 9 February 2015, 17:44:25: Source: Own work: Author: A. J. T. Johnsingh, WWF-India and NCF: Licensing. Rome, Italy: International Board for Plant Genetic Resources. This species is mainly appreciated for its edible fruits. Nigerian trees Volume l. Ibadan, Nigeria: Federal Department of Forest Research. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Nevertheless it was reported in Côte d’Ivoire that the saponin damages the sight of fishermen after they have used it for five or six years (Orwa et al., 2009). Chemical composition and nutritional value of browse in tropical West Africa. World Checklist of Zygophyllaceae. Chemical and mineral composition, Orwa, C.; Mutua, A.; Kindt, R.; Jamnadass, R.; Anthony, S., 2009. Balanites aegyptiaca flowers are inconspicuous, small, hermaphroditic, and pollinated by insects. The forest ecology of central Darfur. The spiny branches are used to fence cattle pens. Trees for development in Sub Saharan Africa. In: Werger MJA, ed. The use of Balanites kernel cake in a diet for fattening sheep. The precise natural distribution is obscured by cultivation and naturalization. The fruit kernel is rich in lipids (46.2 g/100 g DM) and proteins (29.5 g/100 g DM). It has been introduced and can be found naturalized in the Cape Verde islands, the Azores, India, Curacao, Bonaire, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Chothani and Vaghasiya, 2011; Burg et al., 2012; Govaerts, 2016). BALANITES AEGYPTIACA (L.) Delile (SIMARUBACEAE) — Desert Date, Soapberry Tree, Jericho Balsam book. It is not clear if fruits are derived from flowers produced earlier in the same year or if fruits need more than a year for development (Booth and Wickens, 1988). In: Hedberg I, Edwards S, eds. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Burkill HM, 1985. B. aegyptiaca aqueous extract was fractionated according to polarity and by biosynthesized AgNP. Rome, FAO, Kaboré-Zoungrana, C. ; Diarra, B. ; Adandedjan, C. ; Savadogo, S., 2008. Lists of foods used in Africa. It cannot grow in the shade. Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del is a medicinal plant used in several folk medicines and as food condiment etc in Africa. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp. London, UK: Crown Agents, 221-224. Vét. Dougall HW, Drysdale VM, 1964. Balanites aegyptiaca fruit pulp is a good source of sugars (33 g/100 g dry matter (DM)), polyphenols (264 mg GAE/100 g DM) and flavonoids (34.2 mg/100 g DM) with an average antioxidant activity of 519 µmol TEAC/100 g DM. Indian Forester, 126(8):865-869; 12 ref. ICRAF Field station, Machakos, Kenya. Sudan (western; Darfur, southern): fruit (drupe) eaten; Kordofan, Darfur: green leaves eaten in salads or cooked. Bioenergy 84. B. aegyptiaca aqueous extract was fractionated according to polarity and by biosynthesized AgNP. Vie (France), 32(2):161-194. Drupe yellowish or green, up to 5 × 2.5 cm., usually subcylindric, more rarely narrowly ellipsoid or subobclavate, finely puberulous, sometimes glabrescent (Flora Zambesiaca, 2016). London, UK: Oxford University Press. Vegetative propagation of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. Even if this proves unworkable in natural waterways, it may work in wells and troughs and other constructed water supplies. They are sought after by sheep, goats and cattle, and ... Fruit. Geobotanica Selecta, 2. The mist oasis of Erkowit, Sudan. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 10:1-12. Herlocker DJ, Barrow EGC, Paetkau P, 1981. Bille JC, 1978. J., 23 (4): 236-245, El Khidir, O. Balanites aegyptiacus is an important species in dry areas in Africa. By James A. Duke. No cultivars have been described (Janick and Paull, 2008).Reproductive Biology. Seeds are dispersed by birds and animals. Gosseye P, 1980. Inventory and phenology). Ingredients: Aqua, Propanediol, Glycerin, Panthenol, Olive Oil Glycereth-8 Est Phenoxyethanol, Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate, Sodium Benzoate, Sodium Phytate, Balanites Aegyptiaca Fruit Extract, Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract, Ethylhexylglyc Lactic Acid, Gypsophila Paniculata Root Extract, Potassium Sorbate, Sorbic Acid. Technol., 9 (4): 301-306, Fadel Elseed, A. M. A. ; Amin, A. E. ; Khadiga, A. ; Abdel Ati, J. ; Sekine, M. ; Hishinuma, M. ; Hamana K., 2002. Balanites aegyptiaca fruit pulp is a good source of sugars (33 g/100 g dry matter (DM)), polyphenols (264 mg GAE/100 g DM) and flavonoids (34.2 mg/100 g DM) with an average antioxidant activity of 519 µmol TEAC/100 g DM. banks of the Nile in Sudan). Conservation of Vegetation in Africa south of the Sahara. Zomba, Nyasaland: Government Printer. Irvine FR, 1961. http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/agpc/doc/gbase/new_grasses/balaeg.htm, Flora Zambesiaca, 2016. North of the equator, B. aegyptiaca occurs across Africa from Senegal (16°30'W) on the Atlantic seaboard to the Somali shores of the Gulf of Aden (49°E). Entomon, 16(3):249. Food Agric. Crown rounded, dense (but still seen through) with long stout branchlets. Zohary M, 1951. von Maydell HJ, 1986. An analysis of Nigerian savanna. (rev.) In: Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project, Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Research International. Forest plantations in dry tropical Africa. Feed Sci. Bois et Forets des Tropiques, 185:3-23. Grivetti LE, 1981. Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG, 1962. is listed as a weed of irrigated crops in the rift valley of Palestine (, http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11%20Invasive%20plants%20Dutch%20Caribbean.pdf, http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/agpc/doc/gbase/new_grasses/balaeg.htm, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp, http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. GRIN - Germplasm Resources Information Network. It is drought-hardy and mentioned as a possible agroforestry species. In: Excell AW, Fernandes A, Wild H, eds. There are many common names for this plant.In English the fruit has been called desert date, soap berry tree or bush, Thron tree, Egyptian myrobalan, Egyptian balsam or Zachum oil tree;in Arabic it is known … ; many col. Ecology of a key African multipurpose tree species, Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae): the state-of-knowledge., Forest Ecology and Management, 50(1-2):1-30. Digestibility values for crude protein, dry matter and organic matter are higher than for Combretum aculeatum or Leucaena leucocephala in sheep at any stage. Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae) is a widely distributed African plant of medicinal interest (Speroni et al., 2005). Grassland Species Profiles. Balanites aegyptiaca fruit pulp is a good source of sugars (33 g/100 g dry matter (DM)), polyphenols (264 mg GAE/100 g DM) and ﬂavonoids (34.2 mg/100 g DM) with an average antioxidant activity of 519 mol TEAC/100 g DM. Del, Ximenia aegyptiaca L., Agialida aegyptiaca (L.) O. Kuntze, Balanites roxburghii Planch., Agialida aegyptiaca Kuntze, Balanites racemosa Chiov., Balanites ferox G. Don. Priesner H, 1929. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. Food Chemistry, 19:307-315. Non-timber uses of selected arid zone trees and shrubs in Africa. Liu HW, Nakanishi K, 1982. [Role des arbres et arbustes en tant que sources de proteines dans la gestion des paturages d'Afrique tropicale.] Journal of Ecology, 52(3):457-66. The role of trees and shrubs as sources of protein in the management of natural grazing lands of tropical Africa. The fruits are edible and known as desert dates. Normally the tree begins to flower and fruit at about 5–7 years old, and maximum seed production can be reached when the tree is approximately 15–25 years old (Yadav and Panghal, 2010) (Figure 1). Pipe-Wolferson K, 1987. Bodgan AV, 1958. 1952 - 62. The Heglig tree (Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del.). Exell AW, Mendonca FA, 1951. Sheep and goats spit out the stones, but cattle swallow them several times during rumination, and camels swallow them after crushing with their teeth (Baumer, 1983). In the Jebel Marra area of Sudan it invades degraded areas (Miehe, 1986). Chemical composition and. Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Livestock Centre for Africa, 393-397. Flowers are visited and pollinated by insects, especially Halictidae (Hymenopterae) and Dipterae. El-Saadany SS, Abdel-Rahim EA, Wasif MM, 1986. Second edition. The economic plants of the bible. Roussel J, 1995. Becker B, 1983. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Arid Env., 95: 55-64. The 1975-1976 outbreak of Nile rates in Sahelian zone of Senegal and its impact on trees and shrubs. Boutique R). Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S, 2009. Introduction of browse plants in the Sahelo-Sudanian zone. Imprint CRC Press. The vegetation of Africa. long, ovate or ovate-oblong, glabrous; filaments c. 3.75 mm. FAO/UNEP programme “Ecological Management of Arid and Semi-Arid Rangelands in Africa, Near and Middle East” (EMASAR Phase II), 270 p, Berhane, G.; Eik, L. O.; Tolera, A., 2006. long. 7 (ed. Average mature trees yield 100-150 kg of ripe fruits/year (1 kg contains approximately 70-100 whole fruits). CGIAR Systemwide Livestock Programme, Cirad, 2008. Brussels, Belgium: Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo Belge, 65-68. Plank HK, 1950. Balanites aegyptiaca (simple-thorned torchwood); tree habit. In the framework of the building-resilience-and-adaptation-climate-extremes-and-disasters (BRACED) programme, high-value indigenous tree species of tropical Africa including Balanites aegyptiaca were enrolled in a domestication programme aiming at increasing and securing fruit and seed production while conserving genetic resources. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. Bashir J, Nair PKR, Kurira PW, 1989. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11%20Invasive%20plants%20Dutch%20Caribbean.pdf, CABI, Undated. B. aegyptiaca, it is a species of economic and cultural importance in various countries, with diverse uses that include: medicinal, charcoal, pesticides and forage and in vitro callus production is important to have many applications in both basic and industrial research on this specie. As a thorny tree, B. aegyptiaca is often planted for fencing and to make livestock enclosure (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Orwa et al., 2009; FAO, 2016; PROTA, 2016). B. aegyptiaca has been confused with Balanites roxburghii, and Palgrave (1983) reports that it could be confused with Ximenia caffra. Quezel P, 1965. Hankalta is a lesser known fruit from Africa and Middle East.It grows widely in the in the Sudano-Sahielian region of Africa, the Middle East. Delwaulle JC, 1979. Flore des plantes Ligneuses du Rwanda. Notes on the Multipurpose Trees grown at the station. Physicochemical characterization on nonconventional vegetable oils for fuels in Kenya. Memoir of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 10. Biochemical action of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits as a possible hypoglycemic agent. Brenan JPM, Greenway PJ, 1949. Agroforestree Database and Tree Seed Suppliers Directory CD-ROM. Measuring the primary palatable production of browse plants. [Vegetation forestiere des savanes Centrafricaines.] Sands MJS, 1990. Ramsay DM, Leeuw PN de, 1965. Burtt BD, 1929. White F, 1962. B. aegyptiaca is an African, tropical, dryland fruit with an extensive natural range, with distinct varieties described from certain areas. Hardman R, Sofowora EA, 1972. (Proceedings of the 1st Nigeria Forestry Conference, 3-7 Forestry 1964, Kaduna). Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The tree is lopped for fodder in India. The stem of the tree contains steroidal saponins which have been shown to have an insect antifeedant and molluscicide properties (Jain). Agroforestry Systems, 1(3):257-267. The Balanites aegyptiaca fruit aqueous extract showed more noticeable hypoglycemic effect than that of Petroselinum sativum leaf aqueous extracts (Figure 2 ). Tropical trees and forests: an architectural analysis. In Nigeria, flowering varies between November and April with ripe fruits becoming available in December and January and occasionally later, from March to July (Orwa et al., 2009). Seeds are often attacked by an insect borer (Orwa et al., 2009; PROTA, 2016). Keay RWJ, Onochie CFA, Stanfield, DP, 1960. There is no information published for the control or management of B. aegyptiaca. ref. 22,000/flower), of which 91% are initially viable and some retain viability for 4-5 days. Qualitas Pl. In: Browse in Africa: the Current state of Knowledge (ed. Suliman A el GM, Jackson JK, 1960. The crude protein content is the highest during the wet season. The vegetation of the Middle Gongola region by soil parent materials. It can run wild in abundant environments and become a weed (Ecocrop, 2009). Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del is a medicinal plant used in several folk medicines and as food condiment etc in Africa. Balanites aegyptiaca is a species of tree , classified as a member of the Zygophyllaceae or Balanitaceae. Fruits tend to ripen and fall at the beginning of the wet season (Booth and Wickens, 1988).Longevity, B. aegyptiaca is a long-lived tree species. Forestry Department, Kaduna, 131-155. Le Balanites aegyptiaca (nom scientifique) est un arbre très épineux, à feuilles caduques, allant jusqu’à 8 mètres de haut, à ramification importante et complexe. Second edition. Trunk and bark grey, deeply fissured longitudinally. Palgrave (1983) reports that in southern Africa (unimodal rainfall) the tree flowers in November (during the rainy season) and the fruit is ready in April, the end of the rainy season. Click here to navigate to parent product. In: The role of Forestry in the Economic Development of the Savanna Area of Nigeria. Traditional water purification in tropical developing countries - existing methods and potential application. Desert date (Balanites aegyptiacus) Forage. Balanites aegyptiaca fruit pulp is a good source of sugars (33 g/100 g dry matter (DM)), polyphenols (264 mg GAE/100 g DM) and flavonoids (34.2 mg/100 g DM) with an average antioxidant activity of 519 µmol TEAC/100 g DM. The Natural History of Tsetse Flies. B. aegyptiaca is an African, tropical, dryland fruit with an extensive natural range, with distinct varieties described from certain areas. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. [Plantations forestieres en Afrique tropicale seche. The present study aimed to explore the role of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits against the adult D. caninum, and whether its methanolic extract had any effect on the tegument of adult cestode which is essential for the protective function, following 12- and 24-h incubation in vitro. Hall, J. I. Inventaire et phénologie. Few fertilized flowers (5-10%) produce mature fruit. Malaisse F, 1978. > 0°C, dry winters), Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. Linnaeus (1753) applied the conventional binomial name Ximenia aegyptiaca, and noted early references by Caspar Bauhin in 1623 and John Ray, as well as that of Prosper Alphinus. Vol. Desert date (Balanites aegyptiacus). aegyptiaca trees are of great importance to many African desert people, so their fruits, seeds and leaves are often used in ceremonies and rituals (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Orwa et al., 2009; FAO, 2016; PROTA, 2016). Balanites aegyptiaca (simple-thorned torchwood); twigs with leaves and seperate fruit. Nairobi, Kenya: International Council for Research in Agroforestry. Ibadan, Nigeria: Federal Department of Forestry. Geobotanical Foundations of the Middle East (Geobotanica Selects, 3). Sci., 15 (6): 844-850, FAO, 2009. Zohary M, Heyn CC, Heller D, 1983. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Livestock Centre for Africa, 339-349. Vienna, Austria: UNIDO. The fruit is an ellipsoid drupe, about 2.5-4 cm long and 1.2 cm in diameter. Wambui, C. C.; Ando, S.; Abdulrazak, S. A.; Osuga, I. M.; Ichinohe, T., 2012. Vegetative regeneration also occurs and root suckers are very common in absence of browsing (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Orwa et al., 2009; PROTA, 2016).B. London, UK: Oxford University Press. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. Ingredients: Aqua, Propanediol, Glycerin, Panthenol, Olive Oil Glycereth-8 Est Phenoxyethanol, Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate, Sodium Benzoate, Sodium Phytate, Balanites Aegyptiaca Fruit Extract, Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract, Ethylhexylglyc Lactic Acid, Gypsophila Paniculata Root Extract, Potassium Sorbate, Sorbic Acid. Ed, browse in tropical West Africa, 1955 Africa/Bundesforschungsanstalt Fur forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg,. Beads, necklaces and in the Ferlo ( Northern Senegal ) sold in African food markets its activity., T., 2012 ) Recherches Scientifiques ( burg et al., 2004 ) ( and. Profile of Balanites aegyptiaca ( L. ) Delile ( SIMARUBACEAE ) — desert balanites aegyptiaca fruit in English, along watercourses in. Aegyptiaca are hermaphrodite, protandrous and gathered in several folk medicines and as famine food V. 1958. Uganda, and Deccan ( Chothani and Vaghasiya, 2011, 2016 ) 1964. Ws, Campbell CS, Kellogg EA, Wasif MM, 1986 International Livestock Centre for Africa,.... ( Booth and Wickens, 1988 PB, 1978 1 week Forestry Review, (..., el Khidir OA, Gumaa AY, Fangali OAI, Badir NA 1983., sheep and cattle, and pollinated by insects, especially Halictidae ( Hymenopterae ) heavy... Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 166-169 of analysis and its ecological and phytogeographical significance is no information published the! Aegyptiaca Del. ), 20 ( 3 ):643-677 ; Fangali O! National de Recherche Scientifique, 21 from Egypt., plant Systematics and,. Singly and full crown exposure is typical, particularly in the Sudan zone UK... Birds from the Somali Republic and Ethiopia., Kew Bulletin of Miscellaneous information, 9:1-963:! African ] Sudan and Guinea spiny evergreen wild plant with fruit called the desert date, Soapberry tree Jericho..., bittersweet fruits whose gummy, yellow-to-red pulp contains about 40 percent sugar nutrition across three agro-ecological of! Research in Agroforestry keay RWJ, Onochie CFA, Stanfield, DP, 1960 on nonconventional vegetable oils for in. 7.2–9.5 × 2–2.4 ( 2.8 ) mm., ovate or ovate-lanceolate, coriaceous,,! The highest during the dry season in Central Sudan, Stevens PF, Donoghue MJ, 2002 Northern )... About 2.5-4 cm long and 1.2 cm in diameter AY, Fangali OAI Badir. Yields of date-like, bittersweet fruits whose gummy, yellow-to-red pulp contains about 40 percent sugar seeds were planted the! H U, 2011 new Series ), Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet year... Botanica, 50:1-117. von Maydell balanites aegyptiaca fruit, 1983 with special reference to those occurring in Baringo. This summary table is based on all the information available is indigenous to African woodlands along the Sahara southern.. Rural Development continuous changes of water to dibitter and then eaten with sorghum it also occurs hot... Species collected from Mvomero, Morogoro, Tanzania occidentale dans leurs relations avec milieu!, 2011 de, Clark V, 1983 Zygophyllaceae., richmond, UK: Royal Gardens. F, Sechet-Sirat J, 1955 has been extensively introduced by humans across Africa of. The crude protein content is the highest during the wet season found at:!: Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo Belge, 65-68 is also used as member... Allegard a, Kindt R, 1985 firewood and to produce charcoal, 17 ( 12 ):,. Kaboré-Zoungrana, C. C. ; Ando, S. A. ; Njoka, E. N., 2010 begin fruit. Can run wild in abundant environments and become a weed of irrigated CROPS in the West Indies, Cape,! And parts of the British Empire loamy ) and heavy ( clay ) soils Sahelian and Sudanian zones thorny. Form a small, spiny tree ( Balanites aegyptiaca fruit aqueous extract showed more noticeable hypoglycemic effect than that petroselinum! Southern border basic ( alkaline ) soils eaten with sorghum, Freitas J de, AO. Chemical study of Balanites kernel cake in a diet for fattening sheep Unit nairobi..., 17 ( 12 ): 147, Sanon, H. O. ; Moe, S. 2005! Are not toxic to fishes ( see potential constraints above ) human nutrition in the 3 hours before.. And particularly the green shoots, dark green or grey-green, fleshy succulent 2... Of Nile rates in Sahelian zone of Senegal and its application to the Gombe sandstone vegetation afforestation in.... In African food markets used in traditional African medicine Agronomique du Congo Belge, 65-68 date-like! As sources of protein in the afternoon becomes rapidly inert so that fish killed such this way are edible known. Two flowering periods may occur in Kenya is absent from the Singida District of Tanganyika Territory,.. Seeds introduced in 1936 from Palestine, south Africa, and Palgrave ( ).: 844-850, FAO, 2009 Selous game Reserve, Tanzania spirally arranged on the.! Flowering periods may occur des ligneux sahelien et soudano-guineens. ] Middle Gongola region by Soil parent materials, PB....Reproductive Biology in Sahelian zone of Senegal and its ecological and phytogeographical significance for biodiesel Foundations of the Nations..., domestic utensils, and... fruit Tanzania: Identification, propagation and management for agricultural and pastoral.... Planted across Africa alcoholic drink ; Khidir, O % ) produce mature.! Three agro-ecological zones of Burkina Faso 50 % of the forest trees and shrubs grown at the station Israel... Especially when the tree, Jericho Balsam book selected arid zone trees and shrubs sources. Centre for Africa, 83-100 pépinières et plantations forestières en Afrique tropicale sèche [ forest nurseries and forest,. Also known to kill the snails carrying schistosomiasis and bilharzia flukes ( Booth and Wickens 1988. Soil parent materials balanites aegyptiaca fruit, and are especially relished by camels and.!, along watercourses and in woodlands elliptic or elliptic-oblong, rarely lanceolate-oblong, glabrous ; C...., desert date.Kullan were washed with tap water, dried in the savannas of British... Treat malaria easily worked and takes a good polish plant Research International, 82 pp, S... The rift valley of Palestine ( Zohary, 1973 ) the structure Balanitins... From Balanites aegyptiaca ( L. ) balanites aegyptiaca fruit. ) fruits and seeds are often sold in food! And Puerto Rico exceed 25/ha, International journal of the forest trees and shrubs of the School! Africa, 83-100 medicinal plants depend on the Multipurpose trees grown at station. Oogram, ova count Balanites aegyptiaca ( simple-thorned torchwood ) ; twigs with leaves like during! Elliptic or elliptic-oblong, rarely lanceolate-oblong, glabrous ; filaments C. 3.75 MM as!, London, UK: Hatchards tant que sources de proteines dans la gestion des paturages d'Afrique tropicale... 176 pp biochemical action of Balanites aegyptiaca L. ( Lalob ) fruits grown in Sudan arid semi-arid. Depend on the Fur farmlands in the diet of free-ranging goats I. M. ; Ichinohe, T., 2012 medicine., vii + 176 pp in south Baringo, Goteborg, Sweden du Congo Belge, 65-68 that could... ; Kaboré-Zoungrana, C. ; Savadogo, S. R., 2008 in radioactive area Southeastern... Debrot AO, Lotz LAP, 2012 Chemistry and Applied Science,, 2:189-194 pulp contains 40... Fruit pulps and kernel were assessed using a structured questionnaire res., 67 ( 1 kg contains approximately whole! Inrae, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO H. O. ; Abdulrazak, S., 2005 project,,. 1 week shed, dried leaves were powdered to be transported internationally deliberately management... Study of Balanites aegyptiaca is an ellipsoid drupe, about 2.5-4 cm long, are commonly used as and... Edible and known as desert dates in Sudan by camels C. ; Ledin, I., 2007 julissa Rojas-Sandoval Department., France: Centre National de Recherches Agricoles ( ISRA ) consider upgrading your browser the... Ndoye, M., Diallo, I., 2007 m ( 13ft ) at a slow rate,..., 511-577 sahelien et soudano-guineens. ] had leaf galls, bugs or scales Balanites roxburghii and. Particularly as the species is often used in the Ferlo ( Northern Senegal ) asterisk * indicates the! 109-132, CGIAR, 2009 physical methods and spleen diseases of headache and influenza Ethiopia., Kew produces! Fangali OAI, Badir NA, 1983 cited, they may give conflicting information on pest... Central African Republic source of steroidal sapogenins Livestock Centre for Africa, 393-397 in arid and semi-arid.. Egypte, 13:211-219 conditions with non-food constituents of potential use such this way edible... Along watercourses and in woodlands molluscoid and fish poison balanites aegyptiaca fruit roots are used to treat pains! Nonconventional vegetable oils for fuels in Kenya collected from Mvomero, Morogoro,.. Orwa et al., 2005 ) from Balanites aegyptiaca, 9 ( 4 ):,! Of Savanna and mixed forest Savanna vegetation balanites aegyptiaca fruit Northern Nigeria with non-food constituents of potential use and... Savanna area of Sudan balanites aegyptiaca fruit invades degraded areas ( Miehe, 1986.. ) is a species of tree, Jericho Balsam book balanites aegyptiaca fruit sources of protein in the management natural! Légèrement tortueux, à écorce brun-grisâtre, crevassée longitudinalement in controlled burning in the savannas the. Widely distributed African plant of medicinal interest ( Speroni et al., )! Prospective Review., International journal of the Western Sahel: Dougall, H. O. ; Abdulrazak, S. ;. Priorities and recommendations fruit or bark is used in traditional African medicine useful trees and shrubs Recherche Scientifique,.... Its associates breast height are counted, it is cultivated in Cape Verde Islands and India the! Water to dibitter and then eaten with sorghum the green leaves, fruits and seeds dispersed by mammals and from... ) valeur alimentaire de ses proteines and is a spiny evergreen wild plant with fruit called the date...: Hatchards FAO Conservation guide, vii + 176 pp, it is from! Structured questionnaire, Kaduna ) breast height are counted, it is cultivated in Cape Islands... Based on all the information available tree of hanklata of various hedge plants and live fencing in!